Behind the Headline: Black Friday Comes Early

Mall picture by Skeezix1000

Tomorrow is Thanksgiving, a day for celebrating one’s blessings and one’s family. Most Americans, myself included, will be working in the kitchen to make a turkey dinner, then sitting down to share the meal with loved ones, laughing in each other’s company. Some might also spend some time watching the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade or maybe some football.

Yet thousands of employees at retail outlets across America will have to gobble down their turkey and then head straight to work. Best Buy, Big Lots, J.C. Penney, Kmart, Kohl’s, Macy’s, Sears, and Toys ‘R’ Us are just a few of the retail chains that will be opening Thanksgiving evening with Black Friday sales offered to their customers a day early. Many of those customers will be spending the holiday camped out in front of the store for hours on end, waiting for it to open so they can get their hands on those Black Friday bargains.

Over the years, Black Friday, the day after Thanksgiving and the “official” start of the Christmas shopping season, has gradually become a bigger and bigger event for retailers. People will line up for hours before the store opens, and then rush in as soon as the doors open to grab whatever they can find for their Christmas shopping list.

That sentence may have sounded like a metaphorical exaggeration, but as this video shows, it is quite literal. Every year, there are reports of violence at retailers during Black Friday sales as shoppers stampede into the stores and fight over products. According to the morbid blackfridaydeathcount.com, there have been 7 deaths and 90 injuries resulting from chaos in the aisles as of 2013. My grandmother and aunt went to a Black Friday sale once. They saw people running through the store just grabbing things without even looking at what they had grabbed. After a woman with a cane started beating people up over an Xbox, my grandmother and aunt both decided to stay away from the stores on that day from now on.

Yet Black Friday only continues to grow stronger. In the past three years, retailers in the United kingdom have taken up the practice, even though they don’t celebrate Thanksgiving there! Businesses have started up offering to hold your place in line for you as you wait for the store to open. This is all on top of the decision by many retailers to, as the San Francisco Chronicle put it, turn Thanksgiving into “Black Thursday”.

Many people are unhappy about this trend. Some have started a trend on social media sites calling for people to “Boycott Black Thursday”. Those retailers that will stay closed on Thanksgiving, such as Barnes & Noble, Costco, GameStop, and Nordstrom, are spinning this fact to showcase how they respect their employees and their families.

Where did Black Friday come from? Why are so many retailers supporting it and helping it grow? What will become of Thanksgiving? It’s time to go Behind the Headline.

How did Black Friday get its start?

Black Friday logo from Purple Slog

Very, very gradually. The tradition of giving gifts on Christmas inherently turns the holiday into a major boon for retailers, who can usually rely on the “Spirit of the Season” to boost sales. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, retailers began to sponsor parades in major cities (such as the famous Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade), proclaiming that the “official” start of the Christmas shopping season began when the parade ended, usually with Santa Claus reaching a main square. There was a sort of unwritten gentleman’s agreement between these stores that they would wait until after Thanksgiving to begin advertising Christmas sales.

My mother used to work at Macy’s before I was born. She remembered that as the store prepared to close the night before Thanksgiving, a special crew would come in and start pulling out the Christmas decorations. The idea was that when shoppers came in the day after Thanksgiving, the store would be bright and shiny with trees, lights, and ornaments. To put out Christmas decorations any earlier would be seen as unthinkable and quite tacky.

However, the fact of the matter is that Christmas is so important to many retailers that confining it to a single month was bothersome. Plus, there are plenty of people (myself included) who like to start Christmas shopping a bit early. As early as 1939, retailers schemed with then-president Franklin D. Roosevelt to try to add a week to the holiday shopping season by moving Thanksgiving a week earlier. The public was not amused, and Thanksgiving was moved back in 1941. Still, in the mid-1970s the gentlemen’s agreement started to be broken, as more and more retailers started a practice known as “Christmas Creep”, putting up their Christmas decorations and advertising Christmas sales earlier and earlier, until today some businesses count the holiday season as starting on September 30!

The advantage of Christmas Creep to retailers is that it not only takes advantage of early-bird shoppers, it also allows them to start advertising their Day-After-Thanksgiving-Sales early. This means more people show up to buy gifts on that day. Stores encouraged this with so-called “Doorbuster” sales, a term coined in 1949 by J.C. Penney. These sales are classic “loss-leaders”, the store marks it down so low that it actually loses money on the sale, but once the customer is in the store he or she decides, “Well, while I’m here, let me get this other thing I need. Ooh! And this is a nifty item! My niece will love that! Hey, what’s this?”

Of course, the term “Doorbuster” was just meant as a clever marketing term, but in 2008 that’s literally what happened at a Wal-Mart in Vallet Stream, N.Y. Five minutes before opening, the massive crowd gathered at the front entrance smashed in the front door and stampeded into the store, trampling an employee to death.

So it’s called “Black Friday” because of the violence, then?

Nope. It’s because of traffic.

Traffic image by Gemma Longman

In the 1960s, Philadelphia police coined the term for the day after Thanksgiving because of all the traffic jams that held up the city on that day. There would be so many people on the road shopping for Christmas gifts and then going to see the Army-Navy football game that police would have to pull all-hands-on-deck overtime duty directing traffic. By 1975, the term was starting to spread outside the city. Retailers started putting a positive spin on it, thinking of the “Black” in Black Friday as referring to being “in the black”, i.e. making a profit.

As far as I can tell from my research, the violence and rioting associated with Black Friday is a very recent phenomena. As far as I can tell, the earliest reports I found in my research of Black Friday violence occurred in 2006, with a stampede at a mall in southern California that injured 10 people. Since then, it’s gotten so bad that the U.S. government has created guidelines for ensuring employee safety on the day.

If Black Friday is so dangerous, why don’t retailers abandon the practice?

It's all about the Benjamins, Baby!

It’s all about the Benjamins, Baby!

It turns out that while Black Friday is not the biggest source of revenue for stores in the year (that would be the week right before Christmas, because procrastination), it is the day of the year when they are most able to take advantage of their customers and squeeze the most out of them. Many of the “spectacular bargains” are actually being sold to you at the price the store normally sells it; they just raised the official full-ticket price to an unholy sum right before the sale. Besides, all those people who just race through and grab things without looking are sure to have snatched more than a few overpriced goods in their loot.

Having said that, this report from CNN reveals that pushing Black Friday up to Thanksgiving actually doesn’t give stores a sales boost at all. So why are they doing it? Because of their competition – “My rival is opening at 6 P.M. on Thanksgiving. If I don’t also do the same, all my Black Friday customers will go to his store instead.”

In other words, for many retailers, the risks of rioting and violence as well as the public backlash from opening on Thanksgiving might well be worth it.

Maybe not for long, though.

How do we stop this madness?

Two words: Stay home.

This year, many retailers are offering so-called “Black Friday” discounts and sales early if you shop online. Amazon, Best Buy, Wal-Mart, Kohl’s, Lowe’s, Toys ‘R’ Us and Overstock are just a few of the businesses offering their online shoppers Black Friday prices without having to visit the store. Plus, every year since 2005, retailers have also offered deals on “Cyber Monday”, the Monday after Thanksgiving. Last year, retailers offering Cyber Monday sales made more than $2 billion!

Businesses do what makes money. That is the nature of capitalism. If retailers see that online sales like these are making more money than their in-store bedlams, they will start to focus more of their attention on the online sales. So, you can choose to spend your Thanksgiving standing in line waiting for the doors to open, then pushing and shoving your way through a cramped sea of bodies to violently assault the store shelves and risk getting beat up over a Blu-ray player, or you can enjoy your Thanksgiving and buy those Christmas gifts online. I know which one I’ll be doing.

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4 Responses to Behind the Headline: Black Friday Comes Early

  1. Anglynn says:

    You are correct in stating the two words (stay home) that would end this madness. Opening on Thanksgiving detracts from the true meaning of the season. Going back to the ‘gentleman’s agreement’ would serve our country well. It takes the shoppers to revert back to this, not the stores. I am proud of the retailers who, on the own, have chosen not to open. No cash flow equates to closed doors. A Happy and Blessed Thanksgiving to all.

  2. Several years ago, I saw a Hallmark store putting up Christmas decorations on Labor Day weekend. That struck me as just a bit excessive.

  3. Pingback: Behind the Headline: America’s Never-Ending Presidential Elections | Cat Flag

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